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Is a manufacturing process that makes it possible to produces components in high volumes. This works by injecting molten material into a mold and is often used as a mass production process to manufacture thousands of identical items. How it workd? The first stage is to create a mold itself, most of these molds are metal made, aluminum or steel with a precision machine that matches the item to produce. Once the mold has been created, the materials for the articles are fed into a heated barrel and mixed with a helical shaped screw. Heating bands melt the material inside the barrel that fills the mold cavity where it cools and hardens matching the needed shape. Cooling time can be reduced using refrigeration lines that circulate oil or water from an external temperature controller. Mold tools are mounted on plate molds (Or Platens) which open once the component solidifies so that the ejector pins take out the item from the mold. Different materials can be mixed into one in a type of injection cast called Two-shot molding. This technique can be used to flair plastic products, add colors or produce items with different performance characteristics. Molds can be single or multi-cavity, these last one can have identical parts in each pocket or can be unique to create items of different shapes, Aluminum molds are not suited for high-volume production or pieces with tight dimensional tolerance, as they have inferior mechanical properties and can be prone to wear, deformation and damage due to injection and clamping forces, although steel mold are more durable but more expensive than the ones produced with aluminum. This process requires careful design for shape and features for any item, the used materials, the properties and the molding machine. There are various considerations that need to be taken when injection molding process is applied. Injection molding is used to make a wide range of products, including common plastic items like bottle caps as well as remote control casing, syringes and more, it’s also used for manufacturing large items such as car body panels.
EXTRUSION BLOW MOLDING (EBM)
Is one of the many blow molding methods for producing plastic bottles, jars and jugs. It’s a common technology used to process diverse plastics like HDPE, PVV, PC PP and PETG typically in bottles requiring multilayer technologies (With Special oxygen and moisture barrier requirements to improve product compatibility and stability). EBM is the simplest type of blow molding. A hot tube of plastic material called a parison is dropped from an extruder that is captured in a water-cooled mold. Once the molds are closed, air is injected through the top or neck of the contains; Much like blowing up a balloon. When the hot material inflates and reaches the mold walls, the product freezes and the container help to maintain its rigid shape. When a bottle is produced with this method, excess material is formed when the mold closes around the parison. These leftovers must be removed to complete the created item. The bur needs to be trimmed off the bottom (Called the tail), the top (Rim) and in the case of items with handle, the handle piece. Burr is usually removed at the time of demolding (Trimming the mold). In bottles with handles (Handle ware) offset neck and special circumstances, this is extracted by a subsequent secondary operation. In addition to flash removal, secondary (Downstream) operations include leak detection, this is always necessary to ensure the integrity of the bottle before its release of the production line. If a bottle fails the leak test, this one is rejected and returned for rectification. Extrusion Blowing Molding has several advantages, one of which is the lower mold costs compared to ISBM or IBM and the ability to form handles. Another advantage is the capacity to produce multiple layers, in some cases, bottles can have up to 7 layers of materials including virgin plastic resins enclosing a regrind layer (PCR) a barrier and adhesive layers to bind other layers together. Altough specific capabilities differ from producer to producer, other unique capabilities to EBM include In-Mold Labeling, window striping on bottles, angled and offset necks, handles and multiple necks. In logistics and cost terms, manufacturing time for EBM molds is usually shorter and relatively inexpensive compared to other blow molding methods and many manufacturers of this method have interchangeable mold parts that allows the same bottle to be molded with different neck ends, body or relief inserts, because the inserts are interchangeable, change over time is usually short.
In the case of the manufacture of caps with the help of a mold, the raw material is injected until it is full, then it is cooled to obtain the final shape of the cap